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布隆斯基 , Pavel Petrovich (1884-1941)

布隆斯基 , Pavel PetrovichMihail Gerasimovich Danilchenko的文章1 The work of 布隆斯基 , an outstanding Soviet psychologist and educator, was exceptionally wideranging.A man of scholarship and erudition-philosopher, psychologist and educator-he stoodout by the depth and boldness of his thought in framing and solving the scientific problems of hisday. 布隆斯基 ’s name is associated with the founding and development of the Soviet schools ofpsychology and educational sciences. He was the author of some two hundred works onpsychology, education and philosophy, including pioneering monographs, textbooks and methodological and experimental investigations which contributed in the 1920s to theestablishment and development of the entire Soviet system of education, and it was by 布隆斯基 ’译成其他语言的作品表明,在国外对苏联的教育和教学状况进行了判断。 生活与工作 Blonsky was born in Kiev, the son of a minor official, on 14 May 1884. He was educated here,first in the classical high school and then at the university, where he graduated from the classicsdepartment of the history and philology faculty. 布隆斯基 ’s student years (1902-07) coincided withthe first revolution in Russia. For his active involvement in the revolutionary movement he wasrepeatedly imprisoned. In the years preceding the October revolution, 布隆斯基 ’由于不同思想潮流的影响,生活观充满矛盾,但他的实践教学活动决定了他的兴趣和研究,在塑造他的观点和科学观点中起着重要作用。从1908年开始,他教女孩教育和心理学’莫斯科高中毕业后获得硕士学位’s degree in 1913, 布隆斯基 became an assistant professor at MoscowUniversity. It was during this period that he began to give lectures on educational psychology atsummer courses for teachers in various cities. In his lectures, 布隆斯基 developed the idea of theneed for the all-round development of children. He frequently expressed ideas that were tooadvanced for his time and in 1914/15 his appointment as a lecturer at the Tikhomirov advancedcourses for women was not confirmed. Blonsky made a thorough study of the works of leading Russian and foreign educationists,such as Ushinsky, Tolstoy, Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Fröbel, Gansberg, Scharrelmann and Dewey. Of the ideas contained in this educational legacy, he was particularly impressed by thoseconcerning the national characteristics of education and culture, the training of pupils for creativework, the scientific foundations of teaching methods, the need to plan the education system on astrictly rational basis, and the importance of sound theoretical and practical training for teachers. No sooner had the Soviet State come into existence than 布隆斯基 became a proponent ofthe new socialist school and an active participant in its creation. ‘I consider it the greatest of goodfortune’-他写道-'生活在十月革命时期。这样的时代迫使我们从根本上重新思考我们的想法,质疑一切,并揭露最深层的原理。同时,令人怀疑的是,是否有任何东西甚至可以与当下发生的巨大创意热潮相提并论。我很高兴十月革命的精神在我的教育工作中启发了我’.2 In the autumn of 1918 he was made a professor at Moscow University and at several other higher educational establishments. He played an active part in the organization of the Academy of Socialist 教育 (later to become the N.K. Krupskaya Academy of Communist 教育) and became its first rector. Krupskaya, Tsetkin and Lunacharsky lectured there and, with the help of adevoted and hard-working body of teachers, 布隆斯基 made the academy the leading institute ofeducation.During his teaching years, 布隆斯基 trained a large number of teachers, educationists andpsychologists. He was sensitive and caring in his educational work with young specialists, givingthem self-confidence and encouraging initiative. He also contributed to such periodicals as Trudovaya Shkola (The Labour School), 社会主义’noe Vospitanie(社会教育), 纳罗德诺·奥巴佐瓦涅(Narodnoe Obrazovanie) (国民教育),以及 Na Putyakh k Novoi Shkole (Towards the New School), joining their editorial boards. In 1922, Krupskaya enlisted 布隆斯基 ’s services in drawing up curricula for schools.Working with her in the scientific education section of the State Academic Council (GUS) waslargely responsible for giving a Marxist trend to his educational and psychological views.Krupskaya supported 布隆斯基 ’s studies of child development and his other psychologicaland educational investigations. Their correspondence contains passages on their joint efforts tointroduce work as a subject of study in schools.Recalling the years in the scientific education section of the State Academic Council, 布隆斯基 wrote: ‘In 1932 the Council was disbanded. But there can be no denying that itstimulated educational thinking throughout the country. This can be seen in the substantial volumeof educational literature, both theoretical and classroom, which was then published. […]出版了苏联实验学校的工作成果,狂热地抢购了在国外教育文献中发现的所有新思想,人们出国寻找教育的组织方式,并试图将任何看似有价值的东西引入苏联学校。在公共辩论和新闻界中掀起了教育争议和争执。围绕克鲁普斯卡娅的各种形式的公共讨论和公众批评都针对不同的教育原则和措施。 GUS邀请了教学专业人士分享其思想,疑问和成就,《走向新学校》期刊中的许多文章都反映了该时期教师的各种创造性努力。 ’.3 布朗斯基将大量的实践教学与教育和心理学的理论工作相结合。他在科学教育学院,民族学院和理工学院的研究工作量巨大且意义重大。在内战和外国干预时期,他将《劳动学校》(1919年)一书分为两部分卷,《科学改革》(1920)和《科学心理学概论》(1921)。在1918年至1930年之间,他撰写了100多部作品,包括第一本针对学校和高等教育机构的教科书。在著名的法令“关于人民的教育畸变”发表之后’教育制度委员会’ (1936), many of his theoretical propositions were subject to severe criticism, going as far as the complete denial of the positive significance of hispractical and theoretical work.For the last ten years of his life, 布隆斯基 worked at the Institute of Psychology, where hedirected the thought laboratory and trained specialists in psychology.He died on 15 February 1941. 布隆斯基 ’心理观点 In resolving educational problems, 布隆斯基 made use of psychology, to which he devoted a greatdeal of theoretical and experimental research. He was the first psychologist to demonstrate theneed to give scientific psychology a Marxist trend.只是经过激烈的讨论,并没有立即– recalled A.A. Smirnov-that the basic tenets of dialectical-material philosophyconcerning the psyche as a property of highly organized matter, a function of the nervous systemand a product of the brain, and concerning the social conditioning of the personality, gained theupper hand and received general recognition. Fierce battles had to be fought to defend thesepositions by the pioneers of Soviet psychological science, 布隆斯基 and Kornilov, who were thefirst to raise the banner in the struggle to create a Marxist psychology. ‘Their historical services to Soviet science are great and unforgettable’.5 布朗斯基是最早反对唯心主义心理学的人之一’s theory of reflection to the study of concrete psychologicalquestions, primarily memory and thinking. The genetic or historical principle, on which 布隆斯基 based his investigations, dominated the field for many psychologists in the 1920s. While mechanistic and biologistic tendencies are discernible in 布隆斯基 ’s earlypsychological works, an effort to counter vulgar sociological and mechanistic views clearlyemerges in Psychological Essays (1927). In these, he criticizes American psychologists who attempted to explain all sociological problems from a purely psychological point of view. Notingthe close link between psychology and sociology, 布隆斯基 considered that this link parallels the interrelationship between psychology, physiology and biology. In order to progress-heclaimed-psychology must draw upon comparative anatomy, physiology and the history of thedevelopment of mankind. His notion of the link between psychology and other sciences is notwithout significance today. At the same time, he opposed the substitution of biology andphysiology for psychology, calling this process an ‘over-simplification’并引起人们注意将心理学与社会学混淆的错误趋势。 ‘尽管如此’-他写道-'这种情况经常发生。例如在美国以“社会心理学”为标题的出版物”无非是主观心理社会学的建构,即用心理学代替社会学。因此,我们应该极其谨慎地尝试建立社会心理学,以免在这里产生伪社会学而不是心理学。’.布隆斯基 attached great significance to practical methods of scientific psychologicalinvestigation. He stressed the importance of observation and experiment, and was among the first to advocate the investigation of mass psychic phenomena by using mathematics. ‘Yes,’-hesaid-‘很久以前就发现美国的我们还有很长的路要走,直到我们发现自己内部的‘中央纽带” […]我们仍然要发现‘社会人”以及他与环境的联系,不是通过抽象推理,而是通过数学公式 ’.7 布朗斯基受到巴甫洛夫的影响’在考虑诸如习性,联想等心理现象时,关于条件反射的教义。但是,他绝不能高估帕夫洛夫’s importance, particularly in the 1930s. It was this fact, according to some4specialists, that linked him with other psychologists who did not adhere to the Pavlovian doctrine of the natural science basis of psychology and pursued their researches independently of it.8 Wefind the explanation elsewhere. Towards the end of his life, 布隆斯基 came to realize that the Pavlovian physiology of higher nervous activity could not by itself explain the neurophysiological mechanisms of mental phenomena. New research was needed to go more deeply into thephysiological mechanisms of the psyche, to connect them with blood chemistry, the activity of theendocrine glands and so on.We came to this conclusion on account of his psychological writings, in particular thearticle ‘Change in the Alkalinity of Saliva in Relation to Change in Mental State’, in which hesums up his research into changes in the alkaline radical of saliva-pH-as a function of the activities being carried out by the experimental subject, such as dreaming or allowing the mind towander, or solving complex mental problems. 布隆斯基 ’在这方面的立场得到有关生化机制,体液因子和内分泌系统在精神活动中的心理药理学研究的支持。 In his books Memory and Thinking (1935) and 小学生思维发展 (1935),以及在关于证明心理学及其在儿童中的特征,涉及运动,实践活动和与感知有关的思维的问题以及欲望心理学的文章中,勃朗斯基辩证地研究了记忆的过程,对人民的看法和意愿’实际活动,制定遗传或阶段性’记忆理论,展示了记忆与思维和言语之间的内在联系。记忆随着与思维发展的关系而上升到更高的阶段,与思维之间的距离越来越近。布朗斯基指出,在生活的每个阶段,我们都可以观察到这种联系以及记忆向思想的过渡。实际上,他不仅认为记忆是思想的支持,而且认为,当记忆达到其发展的某个阶段时,它开始对记忆施加越来越大的影响,成为记忆的支持。思想对记忆的影响可以通过记忆和回忆来看出,在记忆的最高阶段,通过接近思想,实际上变成了思想。布朗斯基从认知,记忆,思想和言语相互联系的辩证原理开始,并被他广泛地用于理解和同化过程的研究。他过去曾说过,理解需要各种知识的结合,以使整体具有意义。理解不仅意味着了解,而且还知道“什么以及为什么”’。他彻底研究了理解的过程和阶段。从辩证唯物主义的观点,他还解决了同化问题,论证了在发展的不同阶段,知觉,记忆,思维和言语在同化中是如何相互联系的。他深入研究了同化思想的作用。 He was the first Soviet psychologist to carry out experimental research on the process of understanding and set the study of this problem in educational psychology on the right track. He made a detailed analysis, from a logical standpoint, of the way school children think. He alsocarried out a comprehensive in-depth study of the way in which judgements of various kinds(problematical, hypothetical and disjunctive) and conclusions, as well as the characteristics ofproof, take shape and develop among children. Commendably, he never, as a researcher,separated the development of memory, thought and other mental processes from the overalldevelopment of the human being. In the 1920s and 1930s, Soviet psychology made use of 布隆斯基 ’关于运用唯物主义方法研究心理现象的想法,运用客观研究方法5并将心理学与生活联系起来。但是他的心理工作不仅具有历史意义。他的工作是一个完善的系统,使我们能够了解人类心理活动的复杂性,并了解可以用来解决教育问题的方法和方法。 一般教育问题 It would be difficult to name a field of education in which 布隆斯基 was not active since his scientific interests ranged from pre-school education to university-level teaching, in the same waythat he vigorously propounded the idea of a connection between school and life, and devoted considerable attention to teaching methods, vocational training and polytechnical education. Before the October Revolution he regarded education as an empirical science, discountingits links with politics and economics. Considering education to be the development of the child’具有先天和自然的能力,他支持生物遗传学原理。在定义教育目标时,他遵循了Pestalozzi和Fröbel的脚步,后者是从孩子那里衍生出来的’然而,他在革命前时期的教育观点已经发展为一种新型的生活学校,在这种学校中,学生们做了有益的工作,变得自力更生。他坚持认为教育应以社会科学和自然科学对人性研究的最新进展为基础,提出了遗传在人格塑造中所起的作用的问题。然而,他本人在教育中起着决定性作用。他说,人类发展是诸如科学,艺术和宗教等精神价值的产物。 ‘教育通过价值观将学生人性化–在字面上的字面意义上’.9 应该指出,教育与发展不是一回事。 “教育”的概念’比“发展”要窄’, although education is one of the factors that contributes to development. It should, according to 布隆斯基 , equip pupils with the knowledge they need in the struggle for existence. ‘Only through education’-他声称“‘一个人能成为一个真正的人吗?’.10 他是苏联时期教育文学中许多卓有成效的思想的发源地。他对古典教育遗产对教育发展的影响的观点引起了人们的极大兴趣。他强调,有必要批判性地利用过去伟大的教育家遗赠的思想。教育史教学可以为研究教育科学系统课程提供良好的基础。他认为古典制度已经牢固地建立了教育的哲学基础。他自己的出版物显示出对西方和美国当前的某些教育理论(特别是杜威和沙勒尔曼的某些教育理论)的兴趣。他撰写了许多关于教育的教科书。 1916年,他的《教师培训课程》出版,并两次重新发行。他的《教育科学》(Education Science)于1922年首次问世,至今已发展到七个版本,是高等师范教育机构的标准教科书。’关于教育心理学的著作。在1920年代,他主要根据完全解剖和生理上的生物学因素(牙齿和内分泌腺的发育,血液成分等)将年龄划分为年龄组。纯粹的生物学方法显然在这里起作用。不过,他坚信在以后的阶段中,“每个发展阶段的特征都必须是综合的:不仅是一个因素,而且独特的因素组合是特定年龄的特征。’.11 He was won over by the idea of the integral study of children, making wide use of advances in education, psychology, physiology and biology in his researches on age-group characteristics. Since then, psychology, genetics and educational science have made great strides, yet the integral study of the child that 布隆斯基 so desired has still not been organized as it should, so that his researches in this respect are of unquestionable value. 由于他热衷于对孩子进行全面研究,他转向了儿童学。在他于1920年代(尤其是上半年)写的书中,他将幼儿视为本能和情感的存在。他写道,在儿童中间,对社会的需求仅在学龄前的最后阶段出现。在1920年代末期,他对儿童以及影响人格的因素的看法发生了变化。他更加强调教育在儿童心理发展中的作用。例如,在他的小册子中 困难的学生 (1930)指出了智力与知识之间的联系,他指出:“智力主要取决于生活条件和教育,而最不依赖于遗传’.12在随后的直至1936年的出版物中也可以找到类似的观点。’ -hewrites- ‘孩子们无法成长。如果没有适当的教育和学习,任何先天或继承的特征都无法创造出一个能干且全面发展的人’.13 Much later, 布隆斯基 ’苏联心理学家的研究证实了关于儿童心理发展的观点。这些研究的结果证明了学习在儿童发育中的重要作用’的运动系统和知觉(A.V. Zaporozhetset等),以制定记忆和记忆的方式(A.A. Smirnov,P.I. Zinchenko等),以及塑造智力活动和过程(N.A. Menchinskaya,P. Ya。Gal’perin,D.B. El’konin等人),有关此问题的论文在莫斯科第18届国际心理学大会上发表。14 In his studies of age-group characteristics, 布隆斯基 collected a great deal of material onthe mental life and the physical and socio-political development of schoolchildren. His observations on school-age children are still of particular interest to us today. Rejecting the claim of Western educationists that children are apolitical, he maintained that even young schoolchildren in fact had marked political leanings. 布隆斯基 had a negative reactionto educational science and psychology describing the teenage years as ‘catastrophic’-严重危机时期’-基于伯恩菲尔德,布勒,斯特恩和赫希菲尔德等专家的著作,他们将所有青少年特征归因于特定的青春期现象。这样的“泛性别主义者”理论’他说,这与现实不符。 ‘通过寻找格蕾琴(Gretchen)来获得青少年的整个社会生活,是一个感性和浪漫主义理论的例子,甚至可能不需要详细批评,因此与现实的对比是公然的 ’.15 同时,他认为必须考虑与青春期有关的青少年特征。1935年出版了《儿童性论文集》,这是苏联对性发展和教育的第一项认真研究。它包含诸如不同年龄男孩和女孩的性经历,童年性经历对成人性生活的影响,爱,初恋的心理等问题。他指出,社会环境,监督和指导在很大程度上在性成熟中发挥作用。他认为青春期是发展的重要而非主要因素。他对孩子非常重视’不断增长的力量,观察那个少年’身体的成熟与智力和社会的成熟相匹配。 布朗斯基非常重视教育的目标。在苏维埃时期的大部分著作中,他从马克思主义者的角度解决了这个问题,并不断强调社会,社区和工作在教育儿童和青少年方面的作用。他认为,通过将思想教育与审美,身体,道德和工作训练以及综合技术教育相结合,可以促进人格的均衡发展。作为新社会主义学校的组织者和理论家之一,他坚持认为,当代教育不包括职业培训(青少年学习贸易),而是“理工科”。’培训,提供全方位的科学和工业技能,可让您进入当代文化世界 ’.16一所综合性学校,将知识与行动相结合,将指令与技巧相结合,将是一所意志与智慧学校,塑造品格并塑造孩子’s mind. Amajor contribution would be made by industry which, as 布隆斯基 put it, would help to linkknowledge with action by providing social training.Blonsky believed that the struggle for a new kind of school would be long and arduous.The new school would take much more effort to achieve than all the rest. ‘But if we finally win through to it, the people will have everything they need to celebrate their final and most decisive victory’.17 教学中的基本问题 Blonsky’s educational legacy is rich in ideas about teaching, and particularly about the cognitive activities of pupils, the development of thinking and memory, and the conditions for the effective assimilation of knowledge, skills and habits. Among his solutions to a number of problemsconcerning educational content and methods, one outstanding achievement was the curriculum hedevised for Soviet schools at the time of their original creation and early development.Blonsky worked hard to free curricula from the abstract, dogmatic, religious and moralsubjects that had predominated under the old order. In educational content he gave pride of placeto the natural and social sciences, which underlie the materialistic outlook, and attempted toapproach every discipline from the standpoint of its contribution to the preparation of pupils forworking life. For him, the chief requirements of educational content were a scientific basis, an ideologicaland political bent, a link between school and life, and consideration of the characteristics ofparticular age-groups and individuals. When devising a curriculum, he made a special effort torelate science to the subjects taught at school; he was therefore in favour of everything that wasnew and progressive in the development of scientific thought serving as an inspiration for formal education. It was essential, 布隆斯基 maintained, to give secondary pupils a valid notion ofcontemporary physics. Believing that pupils take in genuine scientific knowledge more actively and deeply than any of the pseudo-scientific or obsolete knowledge that lingered in the curriculum, he called for a bold espousal of contemporary science. In his view, primary schoolwas an introduction to mathematics, and secondary school a mathematical education. In his book The Labour School,他提出了一个数学课程,以刺激数学思维的发展。为此,他在小学引入了一些代数,在中学引入了一些高等数学。直到现在,这都是苏联课程的特色。 Reacting to Lenin’s ideas about the scientific organization of work, 布隆斯基 wrote two 文章s, ‘T他的工作字母表‘ (1922) and ‘作为中学科目的工作组织‘ (1923), in which he defined the content of a course explaining the scientific basis of the organization of work. In the latter 文章, which was highly appreciated by Krupskaya, it is stated that the work process consists of several stages-the organizational, implementation and8checking-the most important of which is the organizational phase, calling for such qualities ascreativity, initiative, judgement, alertness, foresight and the ability to work out what knowledge is required and how to obtain it. It is when a task is being organized that, in his view, the mostvaried knowledge has to be called on.Together with Krupskaya and S.T. Shatsky, 布隆斯基 helped to prepare the State AcademicCouncil’s curricula, which played an important role in the development of Soviet schools. These curricula were drawn up in the 1920s, a time when experience was still lacking and unchartedcourses had to be steered, while confronting great difficulties and, at times, errors. 布隆斯基 himself admitted to such errors. When they occurred, however, he tried to discover their causes and to correct them. Thus he did not support composite curriculum building for senior classes and resolutely declined to take part in compiling curricula by the composite method, which he believed was suitable only at primary-school level. Nevertheless, for him as for other Soviet educators, the essential shortcoming of composite curriculum building was dislocation in the continuity of knowledge. 在教育过程中,Blonsky竭尽全力鼓励学生保持积极主动和自力更生的态度。他曾说过,教育是一种积极的态度,最好不要“接受”。’ it but to ‘build’ or ‘make’为自己。在这种情况下,他关于刺激实践活动和独立活动以发展认知能力的言论至今仍很有趣。作为活跃的动物,Blonsky受抚养的孩子会缺乏活动,动静和被动沉思。天生他们想要忙。应该帮助他们找到能够开展独立工作的素材,以使他们的这种爱好不会闲着。即使是最好的学校,他指出,也不能提供生活中所需的知识。正如他所说,课堂教学无法为学生提供如此多的知识,以至于他们不需要获得更多的知识。一个人不能保留他在学校期间获得的所有知识。这就是为什么学校的基本任务之一就是使学生具备自我教育的能力和技能。布朗斯基始终提倡“积极的方法”。’教学。他曾经说过的旧系统依赖于记忆而不是思想。它提供的指导没有激发独立思考。在新系统下,学习必须变得有趣,有吸引力并且能够使学生满意’求知欲。他将这种方法称为“实验方法”’,因为在他看来,它促进了人们对思想的积极和批判性的理解,并培养了对已收到的思想及其习惯的质疑。同时,这种方法使学生能够在自己所生活的世界中找到自己的出路,并有助于激发他们的创造力。 “实验方法”的优点’,Blonsky提请注意其多样性,尤其是“实验”的范围’孩子们自己。这与“示范”形成鲜明对比’和其他人的复制’的实验,可以理解为验证实验室中已经教授的知识。他包括了学生对自然和社会现象的定期和系统的观察。引起他注意的另一种重要方法是“日常活动方法’他认为这是将理论与实践联系起来的一种方式,以便学生有能力解决实际问题。布隆斯基’对“主动方法”的看法’当今的教育科学除其他外,完善了积极的教学方法,这些方法将激发学生的独立思考能力,从而满足了当代的需求。 在1920年代后期,他为项目方法和道尔顿计划辩护。同时,提倡教育工作者不要随意使用项目方法,并对一些人将道尔顿计划视为教育的灵丹妙药表示关注。他认为学习过程必不可少的条件是工作能力,智力发展程度,组织能力和学习意愿。同时,他根据这些标准对学生进行了分类。他对困难儿童的看法,特别是对如何与他们一起工作的建议和建议,引起了极大的兴趣。 老师及其培训 Teachers receive considerable attention in 布隆斯基 ’的著作。他反复强调需要培训和再培训他们。老师’s task in life was to educate the people who were to build the new society, and to organize and create the school of work. 布隆斯基 was the organizer and an active proponent of the labour school. It was of the utmost importance-he emphasized-that teachers should love children, be close to them and know how to instruct and educate them. The duties of teachers should include a mastery of their subject and the ability to arouse the pupil’对它的兴趣,对教育方法和技术的了解,对学生表演思维能力的教导,对不同年龄组特征的了解,对孩子的关注’s health, and a contribution to the shaping of their convictions and the development ofhigh moral principles, aesthetic awareness and discernment. Hence 布隆斯基 was in favour ofcombining the functions of education and instruction in a single person, namely the teacher.As a member of a team, the teacher, in 布隆斯基 ’的观点,必须得到教学机构的支持,并牢记其教育作用。他指出孩子们需要接受教育指导,但他经常大声疾呼反对“学校管理畸变”’在没有教育家帮助的情况下尝试进行组织。 教师应不断提高他们的知识和技能,正如布朗斯基(Blonsky)所强调的那样,自我教育在这里已成为了自己。老师如果不学习,就不是老师;在培养孩子的思想之前,老师应该先培养自己。没有自我教育和创造力的发展,就不可能教书。布朗斯基积极参与了教师培训。在发展苏联学校的早期,他领导了社会教育学院(后来更名为Nk Krupskaya共产主义教育学院)。这是一种新型的高等教育机构,培训了大约4,000名教育工作者。它的目标是训练有政治才能的人,有能力自己获得知识的人。作为社会教育学院院长,布朗斯基(Blonsky)强调通过直接让教师参与工作活动来对教师进行劳动培训。从第一年开始,学生就熟悉了工厂,车间,博物馆以及莫斯科及其周边地区的所有景点。几乎同时,实践课程在工作生活的各个分支中开始。学生们直接在车间和实验室工作,研究了各种农业。布隆斯基 ’该学院的先驱活动以工业和农业生产工作的形式获得了Krupskaya的认可和支持。 '在那段时间内’-她在1929年回忆说-'布朗斯基同志,我曾深思过如何培养具有生产,农村和工厂知识的当代教师。布隆斯基同志在共产主义教育学院实践了这一做法,让学生将头六个月的时间花在工业上,而不是作为工程师或讲师,而是在车间工作。这给他们的所有工作留下了深刻的烙印。关于他们在工厂工作的一些有趣的报道’. 在学院中,为学生提供了必要的一切,以便为他们提供良好的教学培训。相当重视艺术,音乐,朗诵等。所有学生都接受了学院提供的艺术培训。1学院重视积极而必修的教学实践。学前班的学生在幼儿园工作,而学校老师的学生在学院工作。’自己的学校。他们还为孩子们做了实际的工作’s homes and reception centres, where they worked with homeless children. 教育al work with the homeless was intimately linked with educational theory, child health and psychology acquired atthe Academy. Thus the Academy provided training that was sound for its time in general, vocational andpolytechnical education. It produced a large number of teachers specializing in pre-schooltraining, school education, political educational work and the organization of the nationaleducation system. There is no questioning the value of what was done in this regard by 布隆斯基 .Blonsky was no bookish theoretician, but a teaching enthusiast and a committed, forward looking protagonist of educating the people. His works are among the most treasured of Soviet psychology and educational science. 笔记 1. Mihail Gerasimovich Danilchenko(俄罗斯)。教育科学博士。列宁教师培训大学(莫斯科)教授。在他的俄语出版物中,我们可以提到: The Psychological Theory of 布隆斯基  (1970); and 遗产 of P.P. 布隆斯基  (1971). 2. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 伊兹布兰妮(Ezbrannye)pedagogi¹eskie proizvedenija [教育精选集],莫斯科,伊斯泰德尔’stvo APN,RSFR,1961年,第1页。 43。 3. P.P. 布隆斯基 , Moi vospominanija [我的回忆录],莫斯科,1961年,第1页。 173-74。 4. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 雷玛·娜基 [科学改革],莫斯科,1920年,第1页。 34。 5. A.A. Smirnov, ‘K 50-letiju sovetskoj psihologii‘[纪念苏联心理学五十年]。 Voprosy psihologii(Moscow),第5号,1967年,第2页。 13-14。 6. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 骨 [心理论文]。莫斯科,伊兹达特尔’stvo,1927年,第1页。 147-48。 7. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 伊兹布兰妮(Izbrannye psihologiceskie proizvedenija) [心理学选集],莫斯科,Prosvescenie,1964年,第1页。 53。 8. Cf. A.A. Shein, ‘P.P. 布隆斯基 kak psiholog‘ [P.P. 布隆斯基 as a Psychologist], Voprosy psihologii (Moscow),No. 3, 1964. 9. P.P. 布隆斯基 , Kurs pedagogiki [师资培训课程],莫斯科,1916年,第1页。 67。 10. P.P. 布隆斯基 , Vvedenie v doskolnoe vospitanie [学前教育导论],第二版,莫斯科,1917年,第1页。 7。 11. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 佩多洛贾 [Pedology],莫斯科,1934年,第2页。 51。 12. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 特鲁德涅斯科尔’niki [困难的学生],第二版,莫斯科,1929年,第1页。 45-46。 13. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 伊兹布兰妮pedagogiceskie proizvedenija,同上。 cit。,p。 443。 14.Cf。十八世纪。 Obucenie i umstvennoe razvitie [第十八届国际心理学大会。教育和心理发展],莫斯科,1966年。 15. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 伊兹布兰妮pedagogiceskie proizvedenija,同上。 cit。,p。 492。 16.同上,第226-27页。 17. P.P. 布隆斯基 , 特鲁多瓦亚斯科拉 [劳工学院],莫斯科,1919年,第152页。 48。   版权notice 该文本最初发布于 前景:比较教育的季度回顾 (巴黎,联合国教科文组织:国际教育局),第一卷。第二十三号1993年1月1/2日113-124。 经许可转载。要获取本文的PDF版本,请使用: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/blonskye.pdf 图片来源:俄罗斯信息网


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